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You are here:Open notes-->Encyclopedia-->Curvature

**Curvature**

# How to study this subject

In mathematics, **curvature** is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry. Intuitively, curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being *flat*, or *straight* in the case of a line, but this is defined in different ways depending on the context. There is a key distinction between **extrinsic curvature**, which is defined for objects embedded in another space (usually a Euclidean space) in a way that relates to theradius of curvature of circles that touch the object, and *intrinsic curvature*, which is defined at each point in a Riemannian manifold. This article deals primarily with the first concept.

The canonical example of extrinsic curvature is that of a circle, which everywhere has curvature equal to the reciprocal of its radius. Smaller circles bend more sharply, and hence have higher curvature. The curvature of a smooth curve is defined as the curvature of its osculating circle at each point.

More commonly this is a scalar quantity, but one may also define a curvature vector that takes into account the direction of the bend as well as its sharpness. The curvature of more complex objects (such as surfaces or even curved*n*-dimensional spaces) is described by more complex objects from linear algebra, such as the general Riemann curvature tensor.