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Management And Entrepreneurship Unit-4
Unit-4 DIRECTING & CONTROLLING
According to Koontz, direction is a complex function that includes all those activities which are designed to encourage subordinates to work effectively and efficiently in both short and long term. The function of direction involves two major activities namely giving orders to employees, leading and motivates them. Leadership is generally defined as influence, the art of process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards achievement of group goals. A leader is one who guides and directs other people. A leader is a guide, planner, arbitrator and administrator. On the basis of authority, leadership styles are divided into three categories namely autocratic, democratic and free-rein. Motivating is inspiring the subordinates to contribute with zeal and enthusiasm towards organizational goals. What can motivate people is explained by a number of motivational theories. The important among them are Maslowís need hierarchy theory, Hertbergís two factors theory, Adamís equity theory, Mc Clelandís need theory, Skinnerís reinforcement theory and so on. Communication is the process of exchange of information, ideas and opinions which bring about integration of interests, aims and efforts among members of a group organized for achievement of predetermined goals. Communication process involves the sender, the transmission of a message through a selected channel and the receiver. The communication may be formal or informal. Based on the direction of flow of information, communication may be classified as upward, downward and horizontal. Different forms of communication are oral, written and non-verbal.