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CE-2036-ENVIRONMENTAL-IMPACT-ASSESSMENT-OF-CIVIL-ENGINEERING--PROJECTS--->View question


Asked On2017-05-17 16:37:30 by:manjarimattur

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Answers
PHOTO-CHEMICAL SMOG :
Photochemical Smog was first observed in Los Ange
les, USA
in the Mid1940’s and since then the phenomenon has
been detected in most major metropolitan
cities of the world. The conditions for the formati
on of Photo chemical Smog are air stagnation,
abundant sunlight and high concentration of hydroca
rbon and NO
x
in the atmosphere. In India,
Bombay and Calcutta are ideal candidates for the fo
rmation of PCS, but it may be masked by
smoke and Fog.
It occurs under adverse Meteorological conditions
when the air movement is restricted in
highly motorized areas and is caused by the interac
tion of some hydro carbons and oxidants
under the influence of sunlight giving rise to dang
erous PETROXYACYL NITRATES [PANS].
Its main constituents are Nox, PANS, hydrocarbons,
CO and Ozone. It reduces visibility, causes
eye imitation, damage to vegetation and cracking of
rubber.
It occurs under adverse Meteorological conditions
when the air movement is restricted in
highly motorized areas and is caused by the interac
tion of some hydro carbons and oxidants
under the influence of sunlight giving rise to dang
erous PETROXYACYL NITRATES [PANS].
Its main constituents are Nox, PANS, hydrocarbons,
CO and Ozone. It reduces visibility, causes
eye imitation, damage to vegetation and cracking of
rubber.
Smog arises from photochemical reactions in the low
er atmosphere by the interaction of
hydrocarbons and No
x
released by the exhaust of automobiles and some st
ationery sources. This
interaction results in a series of complex reaction
s producing secondary pollutants such as ozone,
aldehydes, ketones and peroxy acyl Nitrates [PANS]
. The reaction Mechanisms are complex
and are not fully understood.
The starting Mechanism is absorption of ultraviole
t rays from the sun by NO
2
. This
causes the NO
2
to decompose into nitric oxide (NO) and highly rea
ctive atomic oxygen.
NOx+ hr NO + O
The atomic oxygen initiates oxidizing processes @ q
uickly combines with molecular oxygen to
form ozone, which itself is reactive and acts as an
oxidant:
O + O
2
+ M O
3
+ M
O
3
+ NO NO
2
+ O
2
Ann energy absorbing molecule @ particle (M) is r
equired to stabilize "O
3
" or else it will
ozone(O
3
) formed will be quickly removed by reaction with N
O to provide NO
2
and O
2
as shown
in the above equation. However when hydrocarbons ar
e present in the atmosphere, this
mechanism is partially eliminated as ‘NO’ reacts wi
th the hydrocarbon radical peroxy acyl
(RCO
3
) and as a result, ozone concentration builds up t
o dangerous levels

The atomic oxygen initiates oxidizing processes @ q
uickly combines with molecular oxygen to
form ozone, which itself is reactive and acts as an
oxidant:
O + O
2
+ M O
3
+ M
O
3
+ NO NO
2
+ O
2
Ann energy absorbing molecule @ particle (M) is r
equired to stabilize "O
3
" or else it will
ozone(O
3
) formed will be quickly removed by reaction with N
O to provide NO
2
and O
2
as shown
in the above equation. However when hydrocarbons ar
e present in the atmosphere, this
mechanism is partially eliminated as ‘NO’ reacts wi
th the hydrocarbon radical peroxy acyl
(RCO
3
) and as a result, ozone concentration builds up t
o dangerous levels
Hydrocarbons compete for free oxygen released by N
O2 b decomposition to form oxygen
bearing free radicals such as the acyl radical.
HC + O RCO [acyl Radical]
This radical takes part in the series of reactions
involving the formation of still more reactive
species, which in turn react with ‘O
2
', hydrocarbons and Nitric oxide.
RCO + O
2
RCO
3
[Peroxy acyl radical] -------- (1)
RCO
3
+ HC RCHO [Aldehydes] ----------------- (2)
R
2
Co [Ketones]
RCO
3
+ NO RCO
2
+ NO
2
--------------------------- (3)
RCO + O
2
RCO + O
3
----------------------------- (4)

Reactions represented by eqn(2) are termination rea
ctions forming aldehydes and ketones.
However in equations (3) and (4) the peroxy acyl ra
dical reacts with ‘NO’ and ‘O
2
’ to produce
another oxidized hydrocarbon radical (RCO
2
) as well as more NO
2
and O
3
. Further the acylate
radixal (RCO
2
) can react with NO generate even more NO
2.
RCO
2
+ NO
RCO + NO
2
The NO level in the atmospheric eventually drops OF
F with the accumulation of NO
2
and O
3
.
When reactions such as these increase the NO
2
level sufficiently, another reaction begins to
compare for the peroxy acyl radical.
RCO
2
+ NO
RCO + NO
2
[PANS]
The end products are known as peroxy acyl nitrates
@ PANS. Numerous could be formed,
corresponding to the different possible R group thr
ee of the common members of PAN family
are
HCOO NO2 : Perody Formyl nitrate {PFN]
CH3 COONO
2
: Peroxy acetyl nitrate [PAN]
C6H5-COONO
2
: Peroxy benzoyl nitrate [PBzN]
The above equations represent in a broad sense the
nature of the overall photo chemical
reactions leading to formation of smog and they are
no means the only important Mechanisms.
COAL INDUCED SMOG :
Another Form of smog is called industrial smog. Th
is smog is
created by burning coal and heavy oil that contains
sulphur impurities in power plants, industrial
plants, etc. The smog consists mostly of a mixture
of SO
2
and Fog. Suspended droplets of H
2
SO
4
were formed from some of the SO
2
and a variety of suspended particulate matter. Thi
s smog is
common during the winter in cities such as London [
Dee 1952], Chicago, Pitts burg, when the
cities burned large amounts of coal and heavy oil w
ithout control over the emissions, large scale
problems were witnessed. In 1952, London, 4000 peop
le died as a result of this type of smog.
Today heavy oil and coal are burned only in large b
oilers and with reasonably good control @
tall Chimneys so that industrial smog is less of a
problem. However come countries such as
China, Poland Czechoslovakia and some other Eastern
European countries still burn Large
quantities of coal without using adequate controlli
ng measures.




Answerd on:2015-01-17 Answerd By:Nikhil-bharadwaj

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